1 kWh = 3412.14163 BTU

First posted
Monday January 4, 2010 17:19
Updated
Wednesday March 10, 2010 19:55

Solar produces 320 BTU/h/ft2 at best?

Harbor Freight INEXPENSIVE Solar Project Tools.

Steve Wasserman on the Fate of Books After the Age of Print

The group says its goal is to expand New Mexico's renewable energy resources and spur investment in clean energy.

Opponents say the proposed cuts would drive up energy costs, make the state less competitive and do virtually nothing to combat global warming.
Saturday February 6, 2010 10:56

Read Great Lakes Renewable Energy Association comment on solar panel voltage output.

We see this too. Friday February 5, 2010 morning open circuit voltage was over 17 v. When the 100 ohm reisistor was connected, the voltage dropped to .8 v.

At about 10:45 the sun is shining, volatage with the 100 ohm resistor included is over 14 v. The panel is producing about 170 ma. The 100 ohm resistor is 184o F as measured with the non-contact thermometer.


Others appear to be suspicous of solar too.
Not enough wind and solar power could be installed to make up for the reduction in power generation from fossil fuels, according to the Farmington City Council's December resolution.

Reason for below statement
Our mobile power statation mainly use for Resistive load as household linghting, TV, fan, radio and computer. Not suitable for Capacitive load as electric motor, refrigerator, air conditioning, Microwave and ovens.

is becoming clearer after driving 100, 200, 110 ohm loads.


http://www.prosefights.org/scriptpollute/1kwh.htm#cloudy


Thursday February 4, 2010

We are in a solar electricity learning mode.

We're going to increase the resistive load by decreasing the resistor value to see what happens.








Resistor temperature shown on non-contact thermomter. P = .17 * 16.71 = 2.8407 watts.
Or .17 * .17 * 100 = 2.89 watts.

Here's the 10 ohm resistor.



P = .28 * 2.99 = .837 watts. Or .28 * .28 * 10 = .748 watts. Close enough for physics work.

200 ohms.



P = .09 * 18.33 = 1.649 watts. Or .09 * .09 * 200 = 1.62 watts.

110 ohms.



P = 16.55 * .15 = 2.485 watts. Or .15 * .15 * 110 = 2.275 watts.

10 ohm resisitor measuring about 99o F. 100 ohm, 152o F.

Saturday February 6, 2010 lots of sun. 150-170 ma out. 100 ohm resistor measuring 198o F.

By accident it appears we hit about the maximum power out with 100 ohms.

We observed that the voltage from the Harbor Freight 5 watt solar panel appeared to have dropped to around a half volt.

Initial speculation was the the big CEN-TECH is in a failure mode.

So we connected the about 25 year old Soar.



Big CEN-TECH working fine.

Next step was to take the 100 ohm resistor out of the circuit.



What is going on?!! We think we know. First reading was in the millivolt range, not volts.

The voltage is slowly rising and is up to about 1.7 volts after about a half hour. Voltage increased to about 2.1 volts, then dropped back to 1.7. As of 09:03 it is about 2.7.

Panel voltage is 4.44 volts at 4 ma at 09:48.

Panel voltage about 13 v and 130 milliamp. 100 Ohn resistor temperature at about 101oF this afternoon.





We now think the reading is 174.1 millivolts.



Hardware expense for this solar/electricity project would be prohibitive without Harbor Freight.

Here's the receipt for the big CEN-TECH.



It was purchased because it also measures frequency.

Wednesday February 3, 2010



6.48 volts out at 1 milliamp.


Tuesday February 2, 2010 20:02

Here's the test Harbor Freight solar panel photographed Tuesday February 2, 2010.



About 2,010 ft2 house is an energy-efficient Better Homes and Garden design from the energy crunch in 1970's. House is at 6,020 feet altitude as measured by Garmin GPS.

It was Xeriscaped. You see what can go wrong with Xeriscape after 28 years.

http://www.prosefights.org/scriptpollute/1kwh.htm#10w

Solar panel is rated at 5 watts. So we purchased the high ohm value resistor available rated at 10 W.



Electric heat generation is the first task for our solar panel.

See 100 ohm 10 W resistor at bottom left



The little CEN-TECH will be used to monitor current.
The little CEN-TECH deserves respect.



It was bought to troubleshoot electrical problems on 1982 VW rabbit. It replaced an analog Radio Shack multimeter that got fried as a result of a mistake.

Precision resistor measurement using the BIG CEN-TECH auto-ranging multimeter revealed problems. The Japanese Soar measured the precision resistors accurately.

The return of the little CEN-TECH is not connected to the return of the solar panel.

Now it is



Note the voltage drop on the panel. We look to be drawing 170 milliamps.



P = I2 * R. Here .172 * 100 = 2.89 watts.

The solar panel is generating 2.8 watts of electrically-produced heat.

Heat measured a the back of the solar panel suprised us. Heat was measured just after connecting the resistor.



Wow!

Non-contact thermometer is measuring resistor temperature.



Scrutiny of 1 kWh = 3412.14163 BTU started because of an assertion in one of the PNM's Electric 17 Integrated Resources Planning sessions that the laws of thermodynamics did not apply [N/A] to wind and solar generation of electricity.

This is seen in Foil 6 of my alternate report.



The same group that authored the 17/8 pound report is now working on solar and wind generation of electricity. And they are doing this in secret.

We're going renew our effort to pry some technical information out of PNM on the performance of its Algodones, NM solar array.

Friday, January 22, 2010 N.M.
Solar Future Is Getting Brighter
By Rhone Resch President and CEO, Solar Energy Industries Association

The related job potential is enormous. In 2008, Navigant Consulting Inc. released a report estimating that the solar industry will create 440,000 permanent American jobs, attract $325 billion in investment, and increase total green energy deployment from 9,000 to 28,000 megawatts by 2016. Of this staggering figure, utility-scale solar is expected to account for 110,000 jobs, with 12,000 of these jobs projected for New Mexico.



Pam Eaton is co-author of above article printed in the Albuquerque Journal Friday January 22,. 2010 page A9.



Solar Energy Industry Association contacts.





PNM Hires First Solar: Ariz.-based firm to build photovoltaic plants at 5 N.M. sites
Posted on: Wed, 20 Jan 2010 10:15:52 EST

PNM has hired Tempe, Ariz.-based First Solar Inc . to construct 22 megawatts -- enough to serve 7,000 homes -- of utility-scale photovoltaic solar plants at five still-to-beselected sites in New Mexico.

A VP of MorganStanley made a statement to me that solar generation of electricity is a fraud.

This was in reference to large-scale generation of electricity.



MorganStanley is reported to have lost $24.1 million investing in Albuquerque Eclipse Aviation.

MorganStanley may have decided to do some engineering evaluation before investing altenergy techologies?

Let's try to find out.
Senate Bill 418 was signed into law in March 2007 and added new requirements to the state's Renewable Portfolio Standard, which formerly required utilities to get 10 percent of their electricity needs by 2011 from renewables. Under the new law, regulated electric utilities must have renewables meet 15 percent of their electricity needs by 2015 and 20 percent by 2020. Rural electric cooperatives must have renewable energy for 5 percent of their electricity needs by 2015, increasing to 10 percent by 2020. Renewable energy can come from new hydropower facilities, from fuel cells that are not fossil-fueled, and from biomass, solar, wind, and geothermal resources.
New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Renewable Energy Rule 572.

Looks like monetary opportunity for altenergy scams.

Let's make some more calculations.

Comments

A Blip on the Sun Screen
Bill Opalka

new

3413 and 320

by bpayne37@comcast.net - Jan 8, 2010 - 1:15 PM Here's part of a comment posted to "The Question No U.S. Official Dare Ask" by William Pfaff on TruthDig on January 8, 2010.

"[W]e see possibility of looming electricity shortages as a result of increased demand. Google ‘3412.14163’ to possibly see that alternate energy has a serious problem satisfying large-scale electric demand.

We recently learned that best condition solar can only produce about 320 BTU per square foot per hour.

Couple with 1kWh is approximately equal to 3413 BTU and the second law of thermodynamics to see possible problems with solar generation of electricity.

Money, however, can be made selling solar electric systems to those who do not under the significance of the above two paragraphs.

Google ‘pnm, renewable energy backer reach pact’ to read,“This is a crucial step for making New Mexico a leader in solar energy,” said Brian Cassutt of the Renewable Energy Industries Association of New Mexico.”

Absolute importance of computation to solar generation of electric energy of how many BTUs IN demands detailed analysis of calculations of how many BTUs are in one kilowatt hour of electricity OUT.

Second law of thermodynamics suggests that HEAT IN should be greater than 3413 BTU for each kWh generated. Let's investigate.














Here's Mel.




Keep in mind that while both may be about equivalent as far as power or heat output, the second law of thermodynamics kicks in.

Going from heat to electricity more than 50% of the heat is lost. See Foil 6, Heat Rate column.

We are waiting for some of the altenergy types to annouce a heat rate of less than 3413. Or perhaps lying in wait?

Information assembled Monday January 4, 2010







Bill's Whitman College freshman physics book used in the fall of 1956.


Professors Gray and Bennett taught.



Measuring and Quantifying Energy


Thursday January 7, 2009

Watt second.



Calories per joule.

3600 * .238005736 =



*9/5 =
Below is the formula to convert a Celsius scale temperature into degrees on the Fahrenheit scale.

Tf = (9/5)*Tc+32; Tc = temperature in degrees Celsius, Tf = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit






/.454 =




Close enough to defeat "I read it on Internet."

Heat values

Government agencies don't provide electric heater ratings for the simple reason that there is nothing to rate. Electric heaters use electrical resistance to convert electrical energy to heat, and all the electricity is converted to heat, so there's no question of one heater being more efficient than another.

Flow Pro Convection Heater — 4000 Watt, 13650 BTU, Model# 84607

That's 4 kWh so 4 * 3413 = 13,648

Qmark Portable Hydronic Baseboard Heater
120 Volts - 750 / 1500 Watts 12.5 / 6.3 Amps 2560 / 5120 BTU / HR

1.5 * 3413 = 5,119.5
.75 * 3413 = 2,559.5

Electralog 4910 BTU Black Electric Stove
Watts (Watts): 1440.0
BTU Output (BTU): 4910.0

1.44 * 3413 = 4,914.72
1.44 * 3412 = 4,913.28

Looks as if we have BTU/ hour for electric heaters.

Electric range. Most smoothtop ranges have four elements in three ... The capacity of a burner is measured in British thermal units (Btu) per hour.

Most smoothtop ranges have four elements in three sizes: one or two medium-power elements (about 1,500 to 1,800 watts), a small element (about 1,200 watts), and one or two large ones (about 2,500 watts or more).

1.5 * 3413 = 5,119.5
1.8 * 3413 = 6,143.5
1.2 * 3413 = 4,096.6
2.5 * 3413 = 8,532.5

The capacity of a burner is measured in British thermal units (Btu) per hour. Most gas ranges have four burners in three sizes: one or two medium-power burners (about 9,000 Btu), a small burner (about 5,000 Btu.), and one or two large ones (about 15,000 Btu or more).

Which Coleman Stoves Are The Best?

Although there are two burners with the 425 model, one is considered the main and the other the auxiliary. The main burner receives the most gas, as it is first along the fuel line. Therefore it also generates more heat and is the best one to use for boiling or high heat cooking. Overall this stove provides 21,000 BTUs with one burner, or when using both, 11,500 BTUs on the main and 9,500 BTUs on the auxiliary.

Outdoor Cooking StovesThe advantage of white gas over propane is usually only obvious to those who have given the Coleman stove a trial run. The gas fuel is widely available and inexpensive to buy. One gas canister will provide ample high heat for two hours or low heat for 7.5 hours.

Petroleum naphtha 116,920 BTU/gal.

Cabela's in Buda, TX priced Coleman fuel at $15.00/gal on about Decmeber 26, 3009. Wal*Mart prices it a $8.88 on Wednesday Januiary 6, 2010.

Current guess is that Coleman stoves ratings are based on BTU/hour.

3413 BTU computations not quite complete.

Question is: does altenergy makes sense from a competent objective engineering standpoint?

What is the price of kerosene per gallon? $9.48 per gallon for Crown at Lowe's.

The energy content of kerosene typically ranges between 120000 and 130000Btu per gallon. This is slightly less than fuel oil, which has approximately140,000 ...

What is the price of electricity per kilowatt hour which is 3413 BTU? About $.10-15 per 3413 BTU.

For guesstimation, 120,000/3413 = 35.15. So electricity is about $3.50 to $5.27 per 120,000 BTU.

Heating oil prices. Heating oil is a commodity.

Heating Oil (NYM) February 10 ($US per gal.) 2.18 -0.02 2.20 2.18 2.18 1/7 1:02pm

Compare Heating Oil - sold in gallons (138,700 BTU/gallon).

Price of Coleman stove/lantern naptha at Sportsman's Warehouse checked on Thursday January 7, 2010. $9.99.

Petroleum naphtha 116,920 BTU/gal.

Wednesday January 13, 2010 17:36



Wood email response posted below.

All of the foils are posted.

PNM's Steve Martin alerted us to the main source of increasing electric load problem. New construction.



Notice how the above non-technical MSM presentation is trying shift focus away from the construction industry.

And we are shifting focus to 1kWh = 3413 BTU.

http://www.prosefights.org/scriptpollute/1kwh.htm#wood





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Associated Press 2010-01-12 05:00 PM
Among 598 major power plants, 11 percent have less than three days of coal and "would shut production at any time," the Xinhua News Agency said. It gave no details of where they are located but that percentage would be equal to 66 generating stations.

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