Solar generation of electricity
China emails

First posted
Wednesday February 10, 2010 12:58
Sunday November 6, 2010 09:04


Hello China solar/electric. From New Mexico: New Mexico Solar Energy Association.

China has also leapfrogged the West in the last two years to emerge as the world’s largest manufacturer of solar panels.

100 watt solar panels.

Bloom Box.

Solar panel angles essential non-gas-wasting field trip Saturday February 27, 2010.

Landis has also latched on to what could be the 2010 equivalent of the Internet, in terms of investment and business potential: Alternative energy.

9 Volt 200 mAh Chicago Electric rechargeable Batteries.
Solar Panel area illuminated vs power.

Lights as resistive loads.

We spent Wednesday March 17, 2010 night at the Eldorado hotel in Santa Fe.

Thursday morning USA Today was slipped under door.

Below ads containd in it.

Purchase of a digital multimeter capable of testing transistors and diodes for less than $2.00 is very significant.

Accuracy, or at least agreement, between the units is amazing. Old yellow small CEN-TECH agree with first less than $2.00 red meter on voltage to 1/100 volts!

We bought another for $2.12.

Instead of placing receipt in bag, along with flasligh and multimeter, clerk placed above cupon in bag.

Maybe we can buy another for $1.99?

Provided the bought multimeter is accurate, or matches output of other multimeters, of course.

Serious. Multimeters likely contain a microcontroller computer system to sample a/d values to display to LCD.

How is this done for less than $2.00?

Friday March 19, 2010 son-in-law told us. Son-in-law is analog chip designer at Silcon Labs. He reported that in many, if not most, of these devices are 8051 microcontroller variants which he said, cost several cents each.

#4 apparently works measuring a lithium 2032 battery.

It has a yellow on/off switch. #2 which measures about 2-4/100 volts low on 20 volt scale had a red on/off switch. Hypothesis: multi-meters which don't pass QA get a red switch?

We look at back of multimeters. #2 is item 98025 while #4 is item 90899.

Harbor Freight in Albuquerque had a parking lot sale Friday 13 through Sunday 14 March.

Sale coupons advertised 20% off on any single item and free 9 LED flashlight.

Two sets of coupons allowed us to buy 200 mha 9v battery, #3 and

ITEM 91334.

Turning off electric appliances at the wall so they do not consume standy-by electricity saves electricity.

90 JOULES SURGE PROTECTION. Joules is very important to 1 kWh = 3412.14163 BTU.

Sunday March 14, 2010 15:53 9v 200 mah batteries #1 measured 9.39 v, #2 [was in Soar] 2.07, #3 [bought March 13, 2010 at Harbor Freight] 9.02 v. #2 and 3 placed in charger for 18 hour charge. #1 placed in Soar.

Monday March 15, 201014:10 9 batteries charged [a bit overcharged] to #2 10.10 v and #3 10.11 v.

200 mah 9v NIMH battery #2 died 02:21 Sunday March 14, 2101 causing Soar display to go bank and maike about a 1 kHz whine.

50o solar panel angle appears to both produce maximum 15.30 volts and power measured by 13.10 IR drop accross 50 ohm resistor. 13.1 / 50 = .262 amps. .262 * .262 * 50 = 3.4322 watts.

Second measurement of 15.10 volts accross panel and big CEN-TECH measured 256 ma gives 3.8656 watts.

50o solar panel angle is used by BNSF at both its Bernalillo and Rio Puerco altenergy sites.

Field trip Saturday March 13, 2010 revealed that the solar/wind BNSF train signal a the Rio Puerco was not working.

Train seen to the east did not active signal.

Previous week saw snow and clouds. Very little solar energy generated.

Electric energy problem approaching?

Go Nukes
By Byron King
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

According to the Times, China's "civilian nuclear power industry" (and rest assured there's a Chinese military nuclear power industry as well) has 11 operating reactors, with as many as 10 new reactors per year planned for the next 15 years. That's 150 new reactors just in China.

So where will the world nuclear industry obtain the uranium fuel for all these new reactors? That's a darn good question. Just in the US, annual uranium use for the nuclear power industry is about 55 million pounds. The US produces less than 4 million pounds of this fuel - about 7% - and imports the rest.

Little red CEN-TECH $1.99 multimeter battery died on Friday March 5, 2010.

So we replaced it.

It has been running 24/7 since February 13, 2010.

Note microcontroller mounting ... and fuse.
Wednesday February 24, 2010 11:22

Initial speculation that 100 ohm load produced about the maximum power appears to be incorrect.

The solar panel generated more than 3.4 watts with a 50 ohm load.
A solar cell may operate over a wide range of voltages (V) and currents (I). By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated cell continuously from zero (a short circuit) to a very high value (an open circuit) one can determine the maximum-power point, the point that maximizes V×I; that is, the load for which the cell can deliver maximum electrical power at that level of irradiation. (The output power is zero in both the short circuit and open circuit extremes).

Below is almost unblieveable.

We bought a second red CEN-TECH digital multimeter for $1.99 for our solar electricity project.

Labelled with black tape and has red ON button. Differs from yellow and little CEN-TECH by about 10%.

For $1.99 csd demands quality. So we returned unit and got another.

We can live with inaccuracy in the 1/100s. Note the temperature measured by the non-contact thermometer measure heat from 50 ohm resisitor.
The new little CEN-TECH with black tape initially was 4 to 5 hundreths volts less than the other two small CEN-TECH multimeters. Monday March 1, 2010 it is only about 1 to 2 hundreths volts less.

It has been running 24/7.

13.58 * .2316 =2.900 watts
11.65 / 50 = .233 amps
.233 * .233 * 50 = 2.7144 watts

Close enough?

Note 1000 µF capacitor. We are contemplating taking a movie to show its charge and discharge characteristics.

We're also experimenting with capacitive loading using solar-generated electricity.

We speculated that the current rush into the capacity would greatly drop the volatage. We were wrong. Solar-generated electricity charged the capacitor directly or through a 100 ohm resistor just fine.

Panel voltage is high even in dim illumination. However, in not intense solar illumination the voltage drops dramatically when a load resistor is inserted and little current is measured.

Solar thermal expert with practical experience with solar water heating and bill are in the planning stages of writing a solar/electric work proposal.

Wednesday February 24, 2010

We need to take a closer look at power vs load.

.235 amp at 13.5 volts .235 * 13.5 = 3.1725 watts. High overcast sun conditions.

Monday February 23, 2101 10:00

Two 100 ohm 10 watt resistors connected in parallel to yield 1/50 = 1/100 +1/100 or 50 ohm load.

Ambient room temperature is about 63 degrees. Non-contact thermometer is measuring heat from bottom 50 ohm resistor.

Using voltage across solar panel leads,
.213 * 12.7 = 2.71339 watts?

Red CEN-TECH is measuring IR drop across the 50 ohm load.

10.8/50 = .216 amp
.216*.216*50 = 2.3328 watts

Hmm? What's wrong? Answers should be closer? So let's do a 70 ohm load by putting the two 10 ohm 10 watt resistors in series with the 50 ohm load.

Low battery indicator on yellow CEN-TECH compelled us to substitute the Soar.

15.71 * .1991 = 3.127861 watts

Using the IR drop

14.14/70 = .202 amp
.202 * .202 * 70 = 2.85628 watts

Second measurement at 12:00

15.94 * .201 = 3.20394

IR drop computation:

14.36 / 70 = .205 amp
.205 * .205 * 70 = 2.946 watts

Non-contact thermometer measured about 90o F on a 10 ohm and about 120o F on a 50 ohm resistor.


1 kWh = 3413 BTU so we can calculate very closely the heat generated by the resistors over one hour from the measured watts.

Since the 10:00 50 ohm computations look suspicious, lets try this again after checking wiring.

Time about 12:30.

14.21 * .2408 = 3.41768 watts

IR drop computation:

12.18 / 50 = .2436 amps
.2436 * .2436 * 50 = 2.957048 watts

Discrepancies might be accounted for by the resistance in the test lead wires?

BTW, the open circuit solar panel voltage is about 20.1 volts.

Sunday February 14, 2010 08:30.

Soar and red CEN-TECH are both measuring IR drop across 100 ohm resistor.

The red CEN-TECH and Soar voltages should be about the same numbers after division of 100 [100 ohm 10 watt resistor] as the big CEN-TECH.

.1524*.1524*100= 2.322576 watts
.1530*.1530*100= 2.3409 watts
.1527*.1527*100= 2.331729 watts

We are measuring voltage right at the resistor. The yellow CEN-TECH has wires between it the power and return.

Note resistor temperature!

Sunday February 14, 2010 08:30.

Soar is, along yellow CEN-TECH monitoring panel volatage driving 100 ohm resisitor load. Note thermometer measurement.

12.7 * .1171 = 1.48717 watts
12.67 * .1171 = 1.483567 watts
.1171 * .1171 * 100 = 1.371241 watts

We'll use IR drops to measure current.

Current is now measured with the big CEN-TECH and voltage the little CEN-TECH.

Current is measured to four digits on the 300 ma fused scale as of Saturday February 13, 2010.

IR drop across 100 ohm resistor measured by red CEN-TECH.

Note the temperature of the resistor! [Light grey button on non-contact thermometer is depressed to take measurement. Measurement is held for about 20-20 seconds before thermometer returns to room temperature.]

15.73 / 100 = .1573 amps or 157.3 ma. Big CEN-TECH reads 156.7 ma.

17.1 * .1567 = 2.67957 watts.
.1567 * .1567 * 100 = 2.45589 watts.
.1573 * .1573 * 100 = 2.47439 watts.
Close enough?

Soar 8050 documentation. Cost was about $100 in 1982.

Red CEN-TECH cost $1.99 in 2010.

Precision resistors were not measured accurately by the big CEN-TECH but were with the Soar 8050.

Load resistor is now 100 ohms.

Tough to believe. Ad received Friday February 12, 2010.

We're buying one for our solar/electric project.

Computations of physics, laws of thermodynamics, and perhaps even estimate of the maxium BTUs per hour per square foot or meter should yield about the same values whether computed in China, the US, Iran, or anywhere else.

In order of importance, power output of solar generation of electricity should be able to computed from

1. 1 kWh = 3412.14163 BTU.
2. Second law of thermodyamics: In all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. This is also known as the law of entropy.
3. Solar produces 320 BTU/h/ft2 at best?

So let's try to reach a consensus on solar-generated electricity power output.

Solar thermal/electrical meeting on Thursday February 11, 2010 between 15:30-16:30 at Viet Taste in Albuquerque is related to chinasolar.


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